The trebuchet spread in popularity as a weapon because it could break through walls and could throw very far. It also was famous because of its repeated success in battle. It had a big effect in the wars of China, Europe, and the Islamic world. The use of the trebuchet declined in the 1400s because there were more modern weapons.
Distilled spirits were used during the black plague. They did not heal the people but made it so they did not suffer as much. Rum had a big effect on history because sailors used rum instead of wine and beer. Rum created a higher demand for sugar cane in the Caribbean islands. This led to an increase in slavery, and that led to the Civil war from 1861-1865.
The windmill made it possible to have electricity generated from the wind. And people still use them today. A boy named William Kamkwamba born in 1987 raised in Malawi (which is in Africa) made a windmill out of junk and it powered 4 lightbulbs and two radios! And he became famous and was on a Ted Talk.
The rudder allowed ships to go farther because they didn’t need to rely so much on wind direction. That allowed sailers to trade with other people on other islands. The rudder is also on modern aircraft. The rudder made ships turn sharper, so they could avoid rocks in emergencies.